Independence of Libya
An event that took place in the spring first according to the Hijri calendar, which is Libya's declaration as an independent state in 1371 Hijri (1951)
Libya occupies an important part of the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and its shores are not far from the southern coast of Europe, which is seen by the West with great interest, as a strategic point of power for those who control it, and this is why the succession of foreign forces of this country.
In the modern era, Italy was keen to occupy Libya, and was considering making it an extension from the south. When the Second World War was lost and the Italian troops left Libya, the victorious forces of the war (Britain and the United States) filled the vacuum, but did not repeat the mistake of the Italians by penetrating deep into Libya and remaining on the shores until Libya was able to declare its independence in (1951)
Location: North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean to the north, Tunisia and Algeria to the west, Niger and Chad to the south, Sudan and Egypt to the east.
Total area: 1.759.540 km 2.
Climate: Mediterranean climate along the coast, dry and desert at home.
The most important natural resources: oil, natural gas, gypsum.
Population: 6,461,454 inhabitants (2010).
Population Growth Rate: 2.18% (2010).
Ethnic groups: Arabs and Amazigh (97%), the rest Tuareg, Toubou, Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians.
Language: Arabic, English.
Religion: Islam (97%).
Proportion of births per thousand: 24.58 (2010).
Mortality rate per thousand: 3.40 (2010).
Infant mortality rate per thousand: 20.78 (2010).
Average Age: 77.47 (2010).
Education: 82.6% (2003).
Governance and Administration
Full name: State of Libya.
Short Name: Libya.
Date of Independence: 24/12/1951.
Political system: Government of national consensus (temporary).
Gross domestic product: $ 77.91 billion (2010).
GDP per capita: $ 12,062 thousand (2010).
Inflation: 4.5% (2010).
Manpower: 1.73 million (2010).
Unemployment rate: 30% (2004).
Growth rate: 2.1% (2009).
Strengths: oil and gas reserves, tourist attractions.
Muammar Gaddafi, former leader of Libya.
Became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état. After the king had fled the country, the Libyan Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) headed by Gaddafi abolished the monarchy and the old constitution and established the Libyan Arab Republic, with the motto "freedom, socialism, and unity.
Coup d'etat: 1969.
In mid-1969, Idris travelled abroad to spend the summer in Turkey and Greece. Gaddafi's Free Officers recognised this as their chance to overthrow the monarchy, initiating "Operation Jerusalem". On 1 September, they occupied airports, police depots, radio stations and government offices in Tripoli and Benghazi. Gaddafi took control of the Berka barracks in Benghazi, while Omar Meheisha occupied Tripoli barracks and Jalloud seized the city's anti-aircraft batteries. Khweldi Hameidi was sent to arrest crown prince Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Sanussi, and force him to relinquish his claim to the throne. They met no serious resistance, and wielded little violence against the monarchists.
Once Gaddafi removed the monarchical government, he announced the foundation of the Libyan Arab Republic. Addressing the populace by radio, he proclaimed an end to the "reactionary and corrupt" regime, "the stench of which has sickened and horrified us all. Due to the coup's bloodless nature, it was initially labelled the "White Revolution", although was later renamed the "One September Revolution" after the date on which it occurred. Gaddafi insisted that the Free Officers' coup represented a revolution, marking the start of widespread change in the socio-economic and political nature of Libya. He proclaimed that the revolution meant "freedom, socialism, and unity", and over the coming years implemented measures to achieve this.
In December 1978, Gaddafi stepped down as Secretary-General of the GPC, announcing his new focus on revolutionary rather than governmental activities; this was part of his new emphasis on separating the apparatus of the revolution from the government. Although no longer in a formal governmental post, he adopted the title of "Leader of the Revolution" and continued as commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The historian Dirk Vandewalle stated that despite the Jamahariya's claims to being a direct democracy, Libya remained "an exclusionary political system whose decision-making process" was "restricted to a small cadre of advisors and confidantes" surrounding Gaddafi.
Libya began to turn towards socialism. In March 1978, the government issued guidelines for housing redistribution, attempting to ensure the population that every adult Libyan owned his own home and that nobody was enslaved to paying their rent. Most families were banned from owning more than one house, while former rental properties were expropriated by the state and sold to the tenants at a heavily subsidised price. In September, Gaddafi called for the People's Committees to eliminate the "bureaucracy of the public sector" and the "dictatorship of the private sector,the People's Committees took control of several hundred companies, converting them into worker cooperatives run by elected representatives.
On 2 March 1979, the GPC announced the separation of government and revolution, the latter being represented by new Revolutionary Committees, who operated in tandem with the People's Committees in schools, universities, unions, the police force and the military. Dominated by revolutionary zealots, most of whom were youths, the Revolutionary Committees were led by Mohammad Maghgoub and a Central Coordinating Office based in Tripoli, and met with Gaddafi annually. According to Bearman, the revolutionary committee system became "a key—if not the main—mechanism through which [Gaddafi] exercises political control in Libya". Publishing a weekly magazine The Green March (al-Zahf al-Akhdar), in October 1980 they took control of the press. Responsible for perpetuating revolutionary fervour, they performed ideological surveillance, later adopting a significant security role, making arrests and putting people on trial according to the law of the revolution. With no legal code or safeguards, the administration of revolutionary justice was largely arbitrary and resulted in widespread abuses and the suppression of civil liberties: the "Green Terror. In 1979, the committees began the redistribution of land in the Jefara plain, continuing through 1981. In May 1980, measures to redistribute and equalise wealth were implemented; anyone with over 1000 dinar in their bank account saw that extra money expropriated. The following year, the GPC announced that the government would take control of all import, export and distribution functions, with state supermarkets replacing privately owned businesses; this led to a decline in the availability of consumer goods and the development of a thriving black market. Gaddafi was also frustrated by the slow pace of social reform on women's issues, and in 1979 launched a Revolutionary Women's Formation to replace the more gradualist Libyan General Women's Federation. In 1978 he had established a Women's Military Academy in Tripoli, encouraging all women to enlist for training. The measure was hugely controversial, and voted down by the GPC in February 1983. Gaddafi remained adamant, and when it was again voted down by the GPC in March 1984, he refused to abide by the decision, declaring that "he who opposes the training and emancipation of women is an agent of imperialism, whether he likes it or not.
National Transitional Council
The NTC governed Libya for a period of ten months after the end of the war, holding elections to a General National Congress on 7 July 2012, and handing power to the newly elected assembly on 8 August
King Idris El Sonosi
King of Libya: 1951–1969
On 24 December 1951 Idris announced the establishment of the United Kingdom of Libya from the al-Manar Palace in Benghazi.The country had a population of approximately one million, the majority of whom were Arabs, but with Berber, Tebu, Sephardi Jewish, Greek, Turkish, and Italian minorities. The newly established state faced serious problems; in 1951, Libya was one of the world's poorest countries. Much of its infrastructure had been destroyed by war, it had very little trade and high unemployment, and both a 40% infant mortality rate and a 94% illiteracy rate. Only 1% of Libya's land mass was arable, with another 3–4% being used for pastoral farming. Although the three provinces had been united, they shared little common aspiration.
The kingdom was established along federal lines, something that Cyrenaica and Fezzan had insisted upon, fearing that they would otherwise be dominated by Tripolitania, where two-thirds of the Libyan population lived. Conversely, the Tripolitanians had largely favoured a unitary state, believing that it would allow the government to act more effectively in the national interest and fearing that a federal system would result in further British and French domination of Libya. The three provinces had their own legislative authorities; while that of Fezzan was composed entirely of elected officials, those of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania contained a mix of elected and non-elected representatives. This constitutional framework left Libya with a weak central government and strong provincial autonomy. The governments of successive Prime Ministers tried to push through economic policies but found them hampered by the differing provinces. There remained a persistent distrust between Cyrenaica and Tripolitania. Benghazi and Tripoli were appointed as joint capital cities, with the country's parliament moving between the two. The city of Bayda also became a de facto summer capital as Idris moved there.
King Idris I announced Libya's independence on 24 December 1951, and was King until the 1969 coup that overthrew his government.
On November 1, 2011, Abdurrahim El-Keib was named the interim Prime Minister of Libya after garnering 26 out 51 votes from the Libyan National Transitional Council (NTC). Despite repeated clashes with the NTC, his Cabinet stayed in office through the national elections, which it held successfully in a transparent, free, and democratic manner.
While serving as Prime Minister, El-Keib's time has been dedicated in large part to foreign policy. Libya has restored relationships with the United States, United Kingdom and other countries. El-Keib collaborated well on the UN and the European Union on issues of interest to Libya during that time, and has also sought to collaborate with the Arab and Islamic world. In addition, he also exerted serious effort to ensure the members of the African Union and other countries such as Russia, China and other southeastern Asia of Libya's interest to maintain mutually beneficial political, security, and economic relationships and collaboration that are based on mutual respect and respect for national sovereignty and interests. His government called for and held a security conference that involved the ministers of defense and the security in the neighboring countries including Egypt, Sudan, Chad, Niger, Algeria, Tunis, Morocco, Mauritania, and Mali. He also addressed the African Union, the International Human Rights Organization, and the UN security Council and visited several important countries and received many foreign leaders in Tripoli to assure all that Libya was on the right track and was making progress to hold that national elections, Libya's first after almost fifty years including 42 years of dictatorship and following a bloody revolution. His efforts was also useful in obtaining what was needed to increase the country's oil production, which reached a level of 1.6 million barrel per day (bpd) from about 200,000 bpd and also the release of Libyan frozen funds.
Ali Zeidan served as a diplomat for Libya during the 1970s, serving in India under Ambassador Mohammed Magariaf.Both men defected in 1980 and went on to form the National Front for the Salvation of Libya. Zeidan spent nearly three decades in exile in Geneva after the defection. During the revolution, Zeidan served as the National Transitional Council's Europe envoy, and is credited for playing a key role in persuading French President Nicolas Sarkozy to support the anti-Gaddafi forces.
On 7 July 2012, Zeidan was elected as an independent congressman for Jufra in the 2012 Congressional election. He ran for the position of Speaker of the Congress, but ultimately lost out to his former opposition colleague Mohammed Magariaf, obtaining 85 votes. On 10 October 2012, Zeidan resigned his seat in Congress.
Following Mustafa Abushagur's unsuccessful attempt to form a government, Zeidan resigned his seat in Congress and ran for the position of Prime Minister against the Justice and Construction Party's favoured candidate, Mohammed Al-Harari. Zeidan was elected Prime Minister-designate by a vote of 93 to 85, with two weeks to submit his proposed new government for approval by Congress. Zeidan was reported to have been supported by members of Congress belonging to the generally liberal National Forces Alliance (organized by Mahmoud Jibril), as well as by certain independents informally affiliated as the Workers group (with 20 members) and the Southern group (with 31).
Zeidan's cabinet was approved by Congress on 31 October 2012, although six of its members were referred for investigation into alleged links to the former Gaddafi regime.All six were subsequently cleared of the charges and Zeidan's government was sworn in on 14 November. Zeidan's cabinet avowedly aimed at geographical as well as political balance, including ministers from the National Forces Alliance, the Justice and Construction Party, and independents.
Zeidan was quoted as promising at his swearing-in that his government would abide by the Constitutional Declaration and "give its utmost best to the nation based on the rule of law, human rights, democracy, rights, and the belief in God, His Prophet and a state based on.
Fayez Mustafa al-Sarraj
Born 1960) is the Chairman of the Presidential Council of Libya and prime minister of the Government of National Accord of Libya that was formed as a result of the Libyan Political Agreement signed on 17 December 2015. He has been a member of the Parliament of Tripoli. Sarraj comes from a prominent family of the city. His father was a government minister during the Libyan Monarchy and was one of the founders of modern Libya. Trained as an architect, during the Gaddafi era he worked in the Housing Ministry. In 2014, he served as the Minister of Housing and Utilities in the Maiteeq Cabinet of the GNC. Some critics "regard Sarraj as a politician imposed by foreign powers. At the time of his appointment "Guma el-Gamaty, a member of Libya Dialogue, the UN-chaired body that created the new government, said Sarraj was expected to ask for help to combat Isis and train Libyan units.
After Libya's 2014 elections, Libyan government was split between the Islamist-dominated New General National Congress in Tripoli and the internationally recognized legislature of the House of Representatives in Tobruk.
In early October 2015, the United Nations envoy to Libya, Bernardino León, proposed a national unity government for Libya, led by a prime minister (Fayez al-Sarraj), three deputies from the country's east, west, and south regions, and two ministers to complete a presidential council. However, this national unity government was rejected by the internationally recognized legislature in Tobruk and the rival government in Tripoli.
Fayez al-Sarraj, and six other members of the Presidential Council and proposed cabinet arrived in Tripoli on 30 March 2016. The following day, it was reported that the GNA has taken control of the prime ministerial offices and that the GNC appointed prime minister Khalifa al-Ghawi had fled to Misrata.
On 14 October 2016, forces loyal to GNC took over the building of the High Council of State and announced the comeback of Ghawil cabinet Then, fighting occurred between Sarraj loyalists and Ghawil forces.