The Belgian Kingdom was founded in 1830 after Belgium was part of the Netherlands (Holland) and established its first constitution in 1831 to establish a united central system with a royal system.

The ethnic economic and political differences between the Dutch-speaking Flanders and the French-speaking Walloon resulted in growing divisions in Belgian society. In 1970 the Wallonia and Flemish cultural councils were established which granted powers for the linguistic and cultural affairs of the two groups,Wallonia and Brussels with considerable administrative and economic autonomy.

In the 1980s Belgium underwent constitutional amendments which gave the regions and groups additional responsibilities and powers. As a result, the regions and groups were allocated greater financial revenues and an executive and legislative authority was established for Brussels.
The most important constitutional amendment in 1993 in which Belgium was transformed from a unified central state into a unique federal state with three levels of government with a complex division of powers and responsibilities. The Federal Parliament consists of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. It consists of 40 persons who are directly elected 21 persons appointed from the three parliaments of the geographical divisions, and 10 Independent members, in addition to the king's son as royal representative. 150 parliamentarians are elected under the proportional voting system of 11 constituencies. Belgium is one of the few countries where voting is compulsory, so Belgium has one of the highest rates of voter turnout in the world.

Belgium was one of the founding countries of the European Economic Community in 1957 and formed with the Netherlands and Luxembourg (the Benelux States) a customs union in 1948 and then an economic union in 1958. It was a founding member and an important party in NATO in 1949 and the European Union in 1993.

The Libyan-Belgian relationship is represented in the cooperation between Belgium and Libya:
Libya and the Kingdom of Belgium are bound by the following conventions and records:

  • General agreement for economic, industrial and technical cooperation on 11 March 1991
  • The Agreement for the Promotion, Protection and Guarantee of Investment signed on 15 February 2004, ratified by both sides.
  • A draft agreement in the areas of energy and space technologies, development of animal breeds, trade and civil aviation.

Four mutual documents for projects between the two sides have not been signed as final:

  1. A draft agreement in the field of maritime transport was the last session of the discussions during the first meeting of the Joint Committee on 19 June 1991
  2. A draft agreement in the field of air transport was signed in initials on 29 June 1991
  3. A draft memorandum of understanding between the two ministries of tourism submitted by the Libyan side was forwarded to the Belgian side on 21 June 2005
  4. Draft agreement to avoid double taxation was the last session of discussion between the two sides on 19 May 2008

 Trade cooperation:

The cooperation between the two countries was carried out through direct contracts between the Libyan authorities and Belgian private companies, which contributed to the implementation of some projects in Libya in the sectors of electricity, and light industries such as soap, pesticides, baking textile and glass. Belgian company in exploration Oil on Petrofina, is doing oil exploration in several areas in Libya.

The trade exchange :-

 The volume of Libyan exports of Urea oil derivatives to Belgium during the year 2009 amounted to about 125 thousand metric tons worth about 12 million dollars and 700 thousand metric tons of petrochemicals worth 400 thousand dollars.
There are three Belgian companies registered with the National Oil Corporation (NOC) namely Bassi Samiri, BISEX and the International Group for Industry, Commerce and Investment.

On June 8, 2003, Libyan Airlines signed an agreement with Belgian company Ulse Engineering to establish a joint airline company but they have not yet done so.

The Belgian company Ban Donnel ran out many works in the field of ports and deepening, including the port of Benghazi and the port of Tripoli in addition to the port of the Zawia city .

Belgium exports to Libya (value in euros)